Tomato | Indian Vegetables |
All About Tomato Growing:
Tomatoes are one of the most popular of all garden vegetables and everyone tries tomato growing at one time or another. Some gardeners grow rows of tomatoes for eating fresh and canning while people with limited space often try tomato growing in containers. Either way, the resulting tomatoes are so delicious that they hardly bear any resemblance at all to the hard, pale tomatoes that are found in supermarkets.
There are many superb kinds of tomatoes that produce well and that are disease resistant. Among the most popular varieties are Beefmaster, Better Boy, Big Girl, Jet Star and Celebrity. Tomatoes take anywhere from seventy to ninety days from planting to harvest so most people transplant ones bought at a gardening store or started inside. Plants should be approximately six weeks old and eight to ten inches high before transplanting. If you live in a location that is warm year round, tomato seeds can be planted directly into the garden.
Tomatoes need to be planted in an area with lots of sun and they like to be fertilized and watered regularly. You will need to wrap a little piece of newspaper around the base of the plant so that it covers the stem at least an inch below and above ground. This is called a cutworm collar and prevents a cutworm from slicing off the stem of the plant right at surface level. A good way to keep out weeds is by mulching with grass, straw, newspaper or black plastic.
Tomato growing requires dealing with any number of diseases and pests which can destroy the plant and/or the tomatoes. Blossom End Rot is a disease that causes a black spot to develop on the bottom of the tomato. The black portion increases in size and becomes leathery as the plant grows. Early Blight is a fungal disease that causes blackish-brown spots on the tomato plant. The leaves will drop off and any fruit on the plant will start to look sunburned.
Fusarium Wilt, Mosaic Virus, and Nematodes are all problems that can be eliminated by buying disease-resistant varieties of tomatoes. They all cause discoloration of the tomato plant and stunted growth. Flower drop is another problem and it’s caused by too cold temperatures at night or too warm temperatures during the day. Tomatoes don’t like temperatures below 55 degrees at night or above 95 degrees during the day. If these temperatures continue for any length of time, the tomato plant will lose its leaves.
Dealing with insects is another part of tomato growing that can be a cause for concern. Most can be eliminated with regular spraying and dusting of plants. Among the worst insects are aphids, which appear on the undersides of leaves and suck out sap from the plants; cutworms, which will cut off plants at the surface usually early in the season; flea beetles, which make little holes through all the leaves; and hornworms, green worms that can grow up to four inches long and eat both the leaves and the fruit of the tomato plant. Other insects to look for include spider mites, leaf miners, stalk borers, stink bugs, and tomato fruit worms. Ask your county extension agent about problem insects and treatments for your particular location.
Planting tomatoes is not hard at all and if the weather cooperates, you will be rewarded for your efforts with large, plump juicy red tomatoes. The first step in planting tomatoes is to get your tomato plants. These can be bought at any gardening store/greenhouse in the spring or you can start the plants from seed inside six to eight weeks before planting.
Starting plants inside just requires planting seeds into pots or trays using a nice, rich plant starter soil. If using trays you will have to transplant into pots when the plants get two to three inches high. To get the seeds to germinate, make sure the soil is moist after you plant the seed and cover the top with a piece of plastic such as kitchen wrap. Remove the plastic covering after plants come through the soil. Before transplanting the little tomato plants outside, harden them off by putting them outside during the day for a few hours and bringing them in at night.
When the plants are ready for transplanting, you will need to prepare the outside soil with organic and/or synthetic fertilizers. Tomatoes like a pH in the neighborhood of 6.5 to 7.0. Also add a time-released garden fertilizer such as 8-32-16 or 6-24-24. Each number refers to the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content respectively. You should be prepared to attach cutworm collars and insert stakes when planting. Cutworm collars can be made of newspaper or plastic and should wrap around the plant’s stem an inch below to an inch above ground.
When planting tomatoes, make sure to put them at least two feet apart from one another. Some indeterminate varieties will need four feet. Make sure all danger of frost is past. From the bottom up snap off all the leaves until there are two pair left at the top of the plant. Dig a hole and bury the stem up to the first pair of leaves. If the stem is longer than three inches or so, lie the excess stem length-wise in the hole with the top three inches vertical. Strong roots will develop on the horizontal length of stem.
Water the transplants thoroughly and apply fertilizer in approximately a week to ten days. Make sure your stakes will be able to hold the weight of the plant. Plants left to grow along the ground without stakes or cages tend to rot and have more disease and insect problems. Mulching your tomato plants also helps protect them and discourages weeds. You should cover the ground with two to four inches of straw, hay, grass clippings, compost, etc. Black plastic also helps to keep the soil warm and prevent weeds.
Tomatoes are 95% water and require frequent watering to grow and produce the nicest fruit. If there are several days without rain, or a longer drought you will need to water your tomato plants either by hand or with a sprinkler. Pruning is not a necessity but if you are growing late-season tomatoes, it is a good idea to pinch off the new growth at the the top of the plant if it starts to get too tall or thick. In order to produce plenty of healthy tomatoes, you will need good light and air circulation inside the plant.
Common Tomato Diseases and How to Treat Them
There are many tomato diseases that can affect both the leaves of the plant and/or the fruit. Most of these are weather-related, having to do with too much rain, too little rain, temperatures that are too hot or too cold, etc. Many diseases are spread by pests. Rarely are tomato diseases so severe that all plants and fruit are lost, but you can lessen any damage that occurs by buying disease-resistant plants and by careful inspection of your plants on a regular basis to catch anything that is happening before it spreads.Let’s take a look at some of the more common tomato diseases:
Early Blight appears as dark spots on the stems, leaves or tomatoes. Some leaves may turn yellowish and die. This is a fungus which can be controlled by sulfur or copper sprays. Make sure you remove all infected plants and clean up the garden well in the fall, as Early Blight can survive the winter and re-infect your plants again next summer. Late Blight also affects both the leaves of the tomato plant and its fruit. It first appears as gray spots on the leaves, which can eventually be followed by white mold. The spots turn dry and the grayish areas can spread to the plant’s stem and fruit. Late Blight is a fungus and can be treated with fungicides. The disease can also spread to other members of the same plant family such as potatoes. It was, in fact, Late Blight that caused the Irish Potato Famine.Southern Blight is a similar disease but the rings of white mold only appear on the stems of the tomato plants. It is a fungus that stops the plant from taking in the necessary nutrients, so it eventually discolors and dies. Research at Clemson University has shown that fertilizers with ammonium can help as can providing extra calcium. Gray Leaf Spot is one of the tomato diseases that attacks the plant’s leaves. Dark spots start to form and then turn grayish-brown. Eventually the center of these spots gets dry, cracks and falls out. Then leaves discolor and fall off. Fungicides can work to control the problem as can good weeding practices. Gray Leaf Spots usually form when the weather has been warm and moist.One of the tomato diseases similar to Late Blight is Septoria Leaf spot. Dark, papery patches appear on the plant’s leaves. Copper sprays can help control this disease. Blossom end Rot is another one of the most common tomato diseases. The bottom of the tomato starts to turn dark and rots. It can be caused by too little calcium or too much nitrogen in the soil. Remove any infected tomatoes.Today many tomato varieties are resistant to Verticillium Wilt, but if this fungus should appear in your garden, it may be tough to get rid of it. The fungus lives in the soil and can remain there for many years. It can also spread to many other kinds of vegetable plants. You will be able to notice yellowing and then browning of the veins in the plant leaves. It eventually discolors the stem and stops nutrients from getting to the plant and the plant dies. No chemical treatments are advised. Experts advise to plant resistant seeds and rotate crops.
How to Get Rid of Tomato Pests
There is nothing like the arrival of tomato pests to turn a healthy tomato plant into a bunch of shriveling leaves and end your hopes for a bountiful tomato harvest. If, however you take some preventative measures, examine your plants for tomato pests frequently, and control infestations quickly, you can win the battle and have some tasty home-grown tomatoes to harvest.
Tomato pests come in many forms. Aphids are tiny little green or brown insects that excrete a honey-like substance on tomato plant leaves while eating new growth. Insecticidal soaps and dusts such as rotenone can prevent damage. Ladybugs are also a natural predator of aphids. Hornworms, fruit worms and other caterpillars can cause severe damage to both tomato plant leaves, stem and fruit. They can be picked off in small quantities and destroyed. Larger infestations will require the use of preventative insecticides or biological Bacillus spray to control the problem.
Cutworms are a spring problem that usually occurs shortly after seedlings have been planted. The ultimate control for cutworms is very simple and does not involve chemicals. Simply place a cutworm collar on each tomato plant when you transplant it and this problem can be entirely avoided. Cutworm collars can be made of newspaper or plastic, and should be placed on the stem of the tomato plant to cover it for approximately two inches-- an inch above the soil and an inch below the soil.
Other tomato pests include leaf miners, white flies, and spider mites. All of these need preventative insecticides to eliminate them. Leaf miners are little worm-like pests that make their way into the middle of the leaves, entering between layers. They start out on the bottom leaves of the tomato plant and work their way up to the top leaves. White flies are tiny white flies that fly around as if startled whenever you go near the tomato plant they are feeding upon. To get rid of them, use insecticidal soap, Pyrethrum, Rotenone, garlic oil or sticky yellow traps. Spider mites are teensy little insects that can barely be seen with the human eye. You are more apt to see the little web-type strands that they use to travel from one place to another. Once again, insecticidal soaps or sprays are the answer to controlling this little pest.
Insecticides are also the answer to getting rid of stinkbugs and Thrips, two other tomato pests that can ruin a good crop. Stinkbugs have mouths that can pierce plant leaves, causing spots to develop on the tomato plants. These will eventually lead to deformed tomatoes of inferior quality. Thrips suck the juice out of healthy tomato plant leaves, leaving silver-looking spots, and causing catfacing and fruit drop.
Other methods of controlling tomato pests include tilling your tomato plants under in the fall and crop rotation. Failure to do so can cause loss of foliage and poor quality fruit. The key to enjoying those fresh, juicy tomatoes you are growing in the fall means checking plants often for tomato pests and taking preventative action.
There are three different kinds of tomato blight that can cause damage and even death to tomato plants. These are Septoria Leaf Spot, Early Blight and Late Blight. All of these diseases are caused by fungi and are the worst in very rainy seasons. The spores need water to spread to other plants.
Septoria Leaf Spot is caused by a fungus named Septoria lycopersici. Tomato plants may acquire the disease at any time during the growing season, whether young or old. It is distinguished by little circular spots that first begin to appear on the undersides of older leaves. Spots are gray or tan with a darker ring around the outside. They may get to be a quarter of an inch and have pimple-like growths called pycinidia. Spots hardly ever appear on the fruit but can appear on leaves, stems and blossoms. As the disease worsens the leaves will turn yellow, dry out and drop to the ground. With no leaves, the tomatoes may experience sun scalding.
Septoria Leaf Spot occurs in wet and humid conditions. The spores of the fungus can be spread from one plant to another by splashing, windblown rain, insects, human beings and cultivating equipment. The best temperature for the disease to spread is in the high seventies. If you leave diseased plants in the soil or do not till plants deep enough underground, the disease can spread from one season to the next. Potatoes and eggplants can also be affected by the disease. Be careful of nearby weeds as the fungus can live over the winter on horsenettle, smooth groundcherry, and black nightshade.
The best way to prevent Septoria Leaf Spot is to buy disease-free seeds and plants, till your tomato plants under every year right after harvesting, rotate plants, eliminate weeds, and apply fungicides designed for use on tomatoes.
Early tomato blight, Alternaria solani, is one of the most prevalent diseases in the Northeastern United States. Ideal conditions for this fungus are 80 degrees and wetness that can be caused by dew, fog, rain, mist or irrigation. The whole plant and fruit can be affected. Circular lesions as large as one-half inch can be spotted on the plant, and eventually all the leaves will die. The spores are spread by water, humans, insects, wind and machines. Do not work on or around wet tomato plants. Early tomato blight can live through the winter so fungicides should be applied and the soil tilled under immediately after harvest.
Late tomato blight is another fungus that loves wet weather and this one occurs later in the season during cooler weather. Greenish black blotches appear on the plant leaves and the undersides show a white fuzzy growth. The fruit of the plant can also have these blemishes. Late blight can easily spread to potato plants, and it was the cause of the Irish Potato Famine. Treatment is the same as for Septoria Leaf Spot and early blight.
How to Get Rid of the Tomato Hornworm
The tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata, is a pest that can do great damage to backyard gardens. They feed not only on tomatoes but also on potatoes, peppers and eggplant. They are seldom a problem on commercial farms. A close relative is the tobacco hornworm. With both of these hornworms it is the larvae or caterpillar which does the damage.
The caterpillars are very large, three to four inches in length. The tobacco hornworm is green with white stripes in a diagonal pattern and a red horn on the back end. The tomato hornworm is green with white stripes that are in more of a V or chevron pattern and its horn is black. If you look closely, the tobacco hornworm has six pair of yellowish-orange spots on its abdomen. Both kinds of hornworms can cause great damage and both turn into incredibly large moths, gray with five to six inch wingspans. These moths are known by several names, including sphinx, hummingbird, and hawkmoths.
Because of the large size of the tomato hornworm, they are easy to pick off plants. This should be the first method to try unless there is an incredibly serious infestation. After you have removed the tomato hornworm from the plant, you can kill it by dropping it into a bucket of water, squishing it, or cutting it up with shears. Be sure to till the soil in the fall to destroy any pupae that might be living there. For more serious infestations, a biological control is recommended--BT or Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel, Thuricide).
After the hornworms have fed on the leaves, blossoms and fruit of the tomato plants for approximately one month, they burrow into the ground to pupate. There are two generations produced each year. They can severely damage the tomato plants unless there is an abundance of natural enemies or biological controls are used. The tomato hornworm seems to like warm inland locations and it is not much of a bother during cool temperatures.
The tomato hornworm has several natural enemies including the common wasp and the parasitic wasp, Cotesia congregates. The parasitic wasp lays its eggs on the hornworm and then feeds upon it. The wasp cocoons look like little pieces of fuzzy rice sitting on the body of the hornworm. If you should spot this condition, leave the worms alive so that they can hatch from the cocoons. Upon emerging, the wasps will kill the hornworms and then look for more hornworms to eat.
If you have had an infestation of the tomato hornworm, be sure to till in the fall as ninety percent of the larvae can be killed by this method. Also, do not plant tomatoes there in the following season but rotate your vegetables so that not only tomatoes but the other vegetables in the same family are not grown in the same space for at least three years. It is sometimes hard to spot the tomato hornworm because its green color blends in with the plant’s leaves, plus it starts by attacking the inner leaves of the tomato plant first.
If you want to have an abundance of tomatoes to eat and/or can in the fall, be on the lookout for the tomato hornworm and destroy it before too much damage can be done.
Tomatoes are the most popular home gardening plant, and today there are hundreds of tomato varieties available. Some of these tomato varieties are determine and some are indeterminate when it comes to plant growth. Determinate tomato plants grow only to a certain height while indeterminate ones continue to grow new foliage and fruit blossoms until the season is over. All of the older heirloom tomato varieties are indeterminate.
One of the best ways to choose tomato varieties is by the amount of time needed to produce fruit. Early season tomato varieties are great for short growing season like those found in northern and colder locations. Medium and long growing season varieties usually make up the main crop for most gardeners. Disease resistance is another quality to look at when choosing what type of plant to get. Today’s hybrids can be resistant to a number of diseases, including alternaria, fusarium wilt, nematodes, tobacco mosaic virus, and verticillium wilt.
Among the early season tomato varieties are the Sub Arctic Plenty (45 days), Early Cascade (55 days), Early Girl (54 days), and Quick Pick (60 days). Most of these produce small fruit in the three to five ounce range. Quick Pick is the most disease resistance among early producers. Champion (65 days) and Mountain Spring (65 days) are both somewhat disease resistant and have larger tomatoes--usually within the nine to ten ounce range.
The majority of the tomato varieties fall within the 70 to 79 days category are considered to be good choices for the main red tomato crop. They produce well and have medium to large fruit. Most have at least some disease resistance and on average tomatoes range from nine to sixteen ounces. Among the determinate tomato varieties in this group are Celebrity (70 days), Mountain Delight (70 days), Mountain Pride (74 days), and Floramerica (75 days). Indeterminates include Fantastic (70 days), Better Boy (72 days), Burpee’s Big Girl (78 days), and Supersonic (79 days).
Extra-large tomato varieties are grown mainly for their size. Many can weigh up to two pounds. Among the best of these are Beefmaster (81 days), Supersteak (80 days), and Delicious (77 days). Sometimes these larger tomato varieties do crack or have scarring but given the size of the tomato nothing is really lost.
There are several tomato varieties which are not red, but yellow, gold or pink. The yellow/gold types tend to have more sugar and lower acid content than red tomatoes. Among these are Mountain Gold (70 days), Lemon Boy (72 days), Golden Boy (80 days) and Jubilee (72 days). The pink tomato varieties have gained more disease resistance in recent years and are still quite popular in many areas of the country. The top two pink tomatoes are Brandywine (80 days) and Pink Girl (76 days). Brandywines are great for canning.
If you grow your own tomatoes you should consider canning tomatoes as a way to use up all those extras you can end up with in a good growing season. There is nothing like bringing out a jar of home-canned tomatoes in January or February to make a delicious meal and to perk you up at the same time. Before long it will inspire you to get the garden seed catalogues out and start thinking positively about how winter can’t last forever. In no time, you will be ordering tomato seeds for the upcoming spring.
Canning tomatoes is not very hard or tremendously time-consuming, unless you plan on producing dozens and dozens of jars. Because tomatoes are so acidic, they can be canned in either a boiling water bath or a pressure canner. A pressure canner is always best and a good investment should you do a lot of canning. It will help the flavor and color of your tomatoes, plus you can use it not just for canning tomatoes, but for canning every other vegetable you grow--and even meats.
The first thing to do is pick your tomatoes--vine-ripened are the best. Make sure the fruit you are going to use is ripe but firm and not from any dead, diseased or dying vines. Canning tomatoes is always the same no matter what kind or color you have in your garden. The USDA recommends that you add either lemon juice or citric acid to your jars before the tomatoes. This is to guarantee acidity in case you are using a boiling water bath. In each clean, empty canning jar, add two tablespoons of bottled lemon juice if it is a quart jar or one tablespoon if it is a pint jar. Or, you can add citric acid--one-half teaspoon for a quart jar and one-fourth teaspoon for a pint.
Vinegar (5% acidity) can also be used but it will probably change the flavor of the tomatoes. If you do want to use vinegar, add four tablespoons to a quart jar and two tablespoons to a pint jar. If you add up to one tablespoon of sugar to a quart jar, it will counterbalance any acidic taste. You can also add salt--one teaspoon per quart--this is only to maintain the color and protect the flavor.
There are many ways to go about canning tomatoes. You need to decide if you want them crushed, whole, halved, diced, etc. and you have to figure out whether you want a raw pack or a hot pack. It takes, on average, 22 pounds of tomatoes to do one load of seven quarts in the canner. You will need at least 14 pounds for the pint jars.
First, wash the tomatoes thoroughly. Then you need to dip each one in a pot of boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds and then immediately dip the tomato in cold water. This will make the skins easy to remove. Also cut off any bruised or dark spots and remove cores. Cut the tomatoes into halves or leave whole and place in the canning jars. You can add water or just press them down so that they are surrounded by their own juices. If you want hot packs, you can boil the tomatoes in hot water for five minutes before adding to jars. Leave a half-inch space at the top of the jars.
Put lids and covers on jars and place in a pressure canner or boiling water bath canner. Follow the instructions that came with the canners or visit your local county extension agent to get a canning pressure and time chart.
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Product Name: Big Red Fresh Tomato
Cultivation Type: Common
Quality: No cracks, no insect bites, mature, modest, sweet and sour taste
Certification: HACCP, ISO
Place of Origin: India
Colour: Natural Red
Taste: Sour Delicious
FRESH TOMATO grade A: a
Raw material: 100% Fresh Ripe Tomatoes
Supply Ability: 100000 Metric Ton/Metric Tons per Month
Sizes: Length 4 ~ 7 CM or according with need from clent
Packaging & Delivery
Packaging Details: 10kg/mesh bag, 30kg/mesh bag 10kg/carton, 20kg/carton or according to customers' requirement.
Inner packing: PE preservative bags
Outer packing: 5kgs/8kgs/9kgs/10kgs carton or plastic basket,foam box
We are one of the leading distributors and exporters of Cherry Red to Bright Yellow tomatoes, with flavours from sweet and juicy to tangy and in sizes from tiny cherry varieties to plump beefsteak tomatoes. All types are now often sold on the vine as well. When buying, choose firm tomatoes with a bright unflawed skin, they should have a subtly sweet aroma. They different types of tomatoes we sell are as below:
Beef Tomatoes: The largest of the tomato varieties, these have a sweet dense red flesh. Ideal for stuffing, slicing or cooking with.
Vine Ripened Tomatoes: These are packed with flavour and mature further and keep better on the vine. With a distinctive tomato aroma they are delicious in salads or try them roasted on the vine.
Cherry Tomatoes: These are much smaller than other tomato varieties and have a very intense sweet flavour. Delicious as a lunchbox snack, in salads or roasted.
Cherry Tomatoes on the Vine: The small cherry tomato with a more intense flavour and aroma. Try roasting them on the vine or on the barbecue.
Sungold Tomatoes: A much more delicate flavour than the traditional cherry, very juicy and a lovely orange colour which looks great in salads or as a garnish.
Baby Plum Tomatoes: The most intensely sweet flavour and juicy flesh, with an elongated shape and deep colour. Ideal for salads or cooking they also make a great snack.
Midi Plum Tomatoes: Smallish plum tomatoes which have a sweet-sour flavour, they have a distinctive oval shape and have a very high flesh/seed ratio which makes them great for most cooking methods, from casseroles to barbecues.
Plum tomatoes: These egg-shaped tomatoes have a meaty flesh and concentrated flavour, which makes them especially well-suited to cooking. They are available in various sizes including baby. Plum tomatoes are the most popular variety for canning.
Minimim order: 1×40'RH
Conventional Terms of payment: TT or LC